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MacLaren’s GAELIC SELF-TAUGHT – LEASAN a SEACHD DEUG – Gnìomhair Gaoideach IS


IMPORTANT NOTICE – I strongly recommend that you review TAIC lesson #19 on the Assertive Verb IS before embarking on this lesson (MacLaren’s Lesson #17 : The Defective Verb IS).


Aithris-àichidh (Disclaimer) :–
Tha an leasan seo (agus leasanan sam bith a leanas) às an leabhar Gaelic Self-Taught le Alexander MacLaran (1923). Tha na mìneachaidhean gràmair agus na obair-lesanan agus na cuidichean fuaimneachaidh às an leabhar gu buileach. Tha mi a’ sgrìobhadh na òrduighean a bha anns a’ Ghàidhlig.
This lesson (and any lessons that follow) are from the book Gaelic Self-Taught by Alexander MacLaran (1923). The grammar explanations, the work-exercises and the pronunciation tips are entirely from the book. I am writing the instructions in Gaelic.

GAELIC SELF-TAUGHT – LEASAN a SEACHD DEUG – Gnìomhair Gaoideach IS
(Lesson 17 – The Defective Verb IS)

Leugh na mìneachaidhean gràmair a tha anns na roinnean 151 gu 154. Ath-sgrìobh na abairtean air a tha an loidhne fodha anns an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agat. {Read the grammar explanations in sections 151 through 154. Copy the passages that are underlined into your notebook.}

151. You have already been introduced to the verbs tha and bheil. We have a third verb which is also used to translate into Gaelic the English verb “am, art, is, are.”

152. This verb is IS, pronounced like “iss” in the English word “hiss”. It serves to express a simple assertion, to connect an attribute with its subject, to predicate one thing of another, as :– Is mise an treòraiche. = I am the guide.

An treòraiche here is the attribute of mise, or is predicated of mise by the verb is. Tha denotes a qualified existence; i.e., in relation to time, place, or some qualifying condition. Is denotes simple existence without reference to anything else whatsoever.

Examples of both verbs are given in the following sentence, which the student would do well to analyse – Is mise a tha ann. It is I who am there – in a certain place – here.

153. The verb is is generally used impersonally. In such cases a neuter pronoun subject is contained in the verb, so that the noun or pronoun that followsit is not a subject but a predicate ; when the later is a definite or proper noun it will be a double predicate. Thus : Is mise, It is I; Is tusa, It is thou; Is e Seumas It is (he) James. Being an emphatic and assertive verb, the emphatic pronouns are generally used (mise, tusa).

154. This is a defective verb, having only a present tense, is and a past tense bu. But they enter into many combinations and idiomatic clauses along with a noun and preposition, verbs and adverbs, as :–
Is urrainn do = can, able
Is lèir do = see {N.B. – traditional now, replaced by faicsinneach, follaiseach, soilleir}
Is còir do = ought {N.B. – generally used in past tense bu chòir do}
Is tu bhios sona = ’tis you who will be happy
Is gorma dh’ fhàs e = green did it grown.


Ath-sgrìobh an clàr a tha anns roinn 158 anns an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agat.

154. There is no dependent form in either the present or the past tense. In the present tense, after the particles, the verb is is omitted and only the particles remain, but the idea is as distinctly conveyed as if the verb had been expressed : as, cha mhi it is not I.

Present Tense Past Tense
is it is bu it was
is mi it is I or I am bu mhi It was I or I was
is tu it is thou/you bu tu It was thou/you
is e/i It is he/she, it b’ e/ b’ i It was he/she, it
* * * * * *
an ? is it ? am bu ? was it ?
am mi? is it I? am bu mhi? was it I?
an tu? is it you? am bu tu? was it you?
cha it is not cha bu it was not
cha mhi it is not I cha bu mhi it was not I
cha tu it is not you cha bu tu it was not you
chan e/i it is not he/she, it cha b’e/ b’i it was not he/she, it
nach ? is it not ? nach bu ? was it not ?
* * * * * *
ma’s if it is na’m bu if it was
mur if it is not mur bu if it was not
ged a’s though it is ged bu though it was
ged nach though it is not ged nach bu though it was not
gur that it is gu’m bu that it was
nach that it is not nach bu that is was not

156. In the past tense bu causes aspiration of words immediately following :– bu mhi, it was I; bu mhòr am bonnach, the cake was large; but words beginning with d or t are not aspirated — bu tu, it was thou; bu dalma ’twas impertinent. Bu loses its vowel when followedby a vowel — b’ e, it was he; b’ iad, it was they; b’ urrainn domh, I could.


a’ chrìoch de roinn a h-aon dhan leasan 17 Continue reading

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GAELIC SELF-TAUGHT – LEASAN a h-AON DEUG – an Gnìomhair “A BHITH”; ATH-SGRÙDAIDH.

{LESSON 11 – the Verb “TO BE”; Review.}

Aithris-àichidh (Disclaimer) :–
Tha an leasan seo (agus leasanan sam bith a leanas) às an leabhar Gaelic Self-Taught le Alexander MacLaran (1923).
Tha na mìneachaidhean gràmair agus na obair-lesanan agus na cuidichean fuaimneachaidh às an leabhar gu buileach. Tha mi a’ sgrìobhadh na òrduighean a bha anns a’ Ghàidhlig.
This lesson (and any lessons that follow) are from the book Gaelic Self-Taught by Alexander MacLaran (1923).
The grammar explanations, the work-exercises and the pronunciation tips are entirely from the book. I am writing the instructions in Gaelic.


104. Faclan
co-ghnìomhairean {adverbs}
an-dràsta (an drasteh) – presently, (just) now
an làthair (an lla-aher) – present (someplace), the act of being present (short for anns an làthair)

abairtean roimhearaichte {prepositional phrases}
air a’ mhonadh (ar ah vonugh) – on the hill
anns an achadh (auns an achugh) – in the field
anns an fhang (auns an ank) – in the (animal) pen
sa mhadainn (sa vattynn) – in the morning (short for anns a’ mhadainn)

ainmearan {nouns}
bo, na ba (bpo, na bpa) – cow, the cows
na caoraich (nah ko-rych) – the sheep (plural)
na feidh (nah fay-yeh) – the deer (plural)

naisgearan (conjunctions)
noor


105. Leugh na seantansan seo anns a’ Ghàidhlig agus chuir Beurla orra.
1. Tha na caoraich anns an fhang.
2. An robh iad air a’ mhonadh a-raoir?
3. Cha robh ach tha iad anns an fhang an-dràsta.
4. Bha na ba caillte an-dè.
5. Bha na feidh anns a’ mhonadh am feasgar seo.
6. Nuair a thàinig e do’n bhàta bha e sgìth.
7. An uair a bha iad òg bhiodh iad anns a’ bhaile.
8. Tha na gillean an-seo an-diugh ach cha robh iad an-seo an-dè.
9. Bhiomaid a’ tighinn dachaigh a-raoir.
10. Bhiodh an uinneag briste.
11. Tha an doras duinte.
12. Bhiodh iad an-moch a-raoir.
13. Biomaid treun.
14. Tha na h-eich seo an-sin a-nis.
15. A bheil an cù aig an doras?
16. Tha e aig a’ bhàta.
17. Tha na ba anns an fhang ach bha iad air a’ mhonadh an-siud an-dè.
18. Biomaid anns a’ bhaile anns a’ mhadainn a-màireach.
19. Ma bhios e aig an taigh a-nochd bidh mise an-sin an-dràsta.

106.
Cuir Gàidhlig air na seantansan seo agus abair iad a-mach. Sgrìobh na seantansan anns an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agad.
1. When I was in the wood yesterday the boy was not present/there.
2. He will be here tonight or tomorrow.
3. The farmer was in the town when I was there in the morning.
4. Is the window not broken? No.
5. The dog is not in this field, it is on the hill.
6. There are deer on the hill.
7. Were the men not here last night? (or Weren’t the men here last night?)
8. No. They were in the boat.
9. Though you will not be ready I will be.
10. The deer were not in this field, they were on the hill.
11. These boys were not in the boat.
12. When we were there they were not present.
13. They will be there presently.
14. If the sheep are not in the pen they will be in the field.
15. The shepherd was on the hill.
16. Don’t let that stick be lost.
17. Let the window be opened in the morning.
18. When the shepherd was there the farmer was in the town. Continue reading

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Ath-Sgrùdadh dhen Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; an Tràth Caithte – MA agus NAN

(Review of the Verb “TO BE”; Past Tense – If … Then statements)

Chan eil an ath-sgrùdadh seo anns an leabhar ach tha mi a’ smaoineachadh gu bheil tuilleadh cleachdadh a dhìth oirnn. (This revision isn’t in the book but I think that more practice is needed.)

Thoir an aire gu bheil dà fhacal airson “IF” (mar Beurla) anns an Tràth Caithte; “Ma bha” agus “Na’n”.
(Notice that there are two words for “IF” (according to English) in the Past Tense; “Ma bha” and “Na’n”.)

Bha mi a’ saoilsinn dè an diofar a tha eatorra ‘s mar sin chaidh mi a’ lorg. (I was wondering what the difference was between them and so I went looking.)

Tha “Ma” air a chleachdadh nuair a tha brìgh abairte fìrinnnach; mar seo, Ma bha i an-sin cha robh i an-seo. no Ma bha na gillean anns a’ bhaile cha robh iad an-seo. (“Ma” is used when the meaning of the statement is factual; as in, If she were there (then) she wasn’t here. or If the lads were in town (then) they were not here.)

Tha “Nan” air a chleachdadh nuair a tha brìgh abairte teagmhach no tuaireamach; mar seo, Nan robh i an-sin bhiodh tusa an-sin cuideachd. no Nan robh na gillean anns a’ bhaile bha iad a’ togail aimhreit.. (“Nan” is used when the meaning of the statement is conditional or conjectural; as in, If she were there, you would be there. or If the lads were in town (then) they were making trouble.)


Atharraich na seantasan a leanas ann an abairtean “If … then” a’ cleachdadh “Ma” agus “Nan”. Cuir crìoch air gach seantans ùr leis a’ sgrìobhadh abairt fhreagarrach (anns a’ Bheurla no anns a’ Ghàidhlig). (Change the following sentences into “If … then” statements, using “Ma” and “Nan”. Complete each sentence by writing an appropriate phrase (in English or Gaelic).)

1. I wasn’t going now.
2. I was there last night.
3. The men were there.
4. The lads were coming here.
5. They were tired.
6. The horse was slow.
7. The horse was lame.
8. The dogs were coming home.
9. They were in town.
10. A man was at the door.
11. The dogs were here last night.
12. They were there yesterday.
13. She was there.
14. She is cold.
15. He is at home.
16. The lads were in town last night.


Cuir “Mura” an àite “Ma” no “Nan” ann gach seantans os cionn. (Replace “If” with “If… not/ Unless” in each sentence above.)

Dropping into English here to make it perfectly clear.
Use the conjunction MA to make factual “If A then B” statements. It can be used with :
(1) the Present, Past & Future tenses of the verb TO BE (A BHITH)
(2) the Present tense of the Assertive Verb (IS)
(3) the finite Past tense and the Future tense of other verbs.

MA is NEVER used with the conditional tense of any verb.
* * * * * * * * * *
NAN is the conjectural “if” and is used to introduce a conditional clause. An “If A then B would …” sort of thing. It is always used with the dependent form of the verb and can be used with ONLY:
(1) the Conditional tense of any verb (including the Assertive verb IS);
(2) the Past tense of the verb “To Be” (A BHITH. (Just as in English, the Past tense of the verb “To BE” can be used subjunctively to introduce a conditional clause.) Continue reading

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Faclachadh – Buadhairean

From the grammar text A Double Grammar of English and Gaelic (1843) by John Forbes.


Is iad ainmean nam pairtean cainnt:
am Puncar (no an t-Alt) = the Article
an t-Ainmear = the Noun
am Buadhar = the Adjective
an Riochdar = the Pronoun
an Gnìomhar = the Verb
am Pairtear = the Participle
an Co-ghnìomhar = the Adverb
an Roimhear = the Preposition
an Naisgear = the Conjunction
an Clisgear = the Interjection

3. Am Buadhar
Is e buadhar facal a tha nochdadh buaidh no ceum, agus buinidh e do dh’ainmear no riochdar; mar, balach math, leabhar ùr, damh reamhar; tha sibh dìcheallach.
An adjective is a word which expresses quality or degree, and it is joined to a noun or pronoun; as, a good boy, a new book, a fat ox; you are diligent.

Tha buadhairean ‘sa Bheurla air an dèanamh nan ainmearan, le “-ness” a chur riutha, mar fuairead, teòthad, tiormachd, fliuichead) agus an leithid sin. Theirear ainmearan Buadhaireach no Sgarta riutha seo.
Adjectives, in English, are turned into nouns by adding “-ness” to them, as coldness, hotness, dryness, wetness, and the like. Such nouns are called Adjectival or Abstract nouns.

Gnathaichear beagan ainmearan mar bhuadhairean, fàinne òir, bocs-airgid, blàr-mòine, toll-guail.
Some nouns are used as adjectives, as gold ring, money-box, peatmoss, coalpit.

(Nota Bene : Theirear ainmearan riutha ainmearan mar bocs-airgid, blàr-mòine, agus toll-guail. Such nouns as money-box, peat-moss, and coalpit are called Compound nouns. — puxill)

Gnathaichear beagan ainmearan an dà chuid mar ainmearan, agus mar bhuadhairean, — Crìosdaidh, naomh, math, olc, fuar, prìomh.
Some nouns are used both as nouns and adjectives, as Christian, divine, good, evil, cold, original. Continue reading

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