Category Archives: grammar

MacLaren’s – Clàr 404 – Ro-riochdairean

Tha an ath-leasan anns an leabhar a’ riochdachadh clàr 404 (a bha anns a’ dhuilleag 102). Tha clàr 404 a’ nochdadh na ro-riochdairean airson a h-uile roimhearan.

THE PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS
Singular Plural
Prepositions me thou, you him her us you them
aig, at agam agad aige aice againn agaibh aca
air, on orm ort air oirre oirnn oirbh orra
ann, in annam annad ann innte annainn annaibh annta
à/ às, out of asam asad às aiste/aisde asainn asaibh asda
bho/ o, from bhuam/ uam bhuat/ uat bhaithe/ uaithe bhuaipe/ uaipe bhuainn/ uainn bhuaibh/ uaibh bhuat/ uat
de, of/ off dhìom dhìot dheth dhith dhinn dhibh dhiubh
de, to dhomh dhut dha dhi dhuinn dhuibh dhaibh
eadar, between eadarainn eadaraibh eatarra
fo, under fodham fodhad fodha foidhpe/foipe fodhainn fodhaibh fodhpa/fòpa
gu/chun, to thugam thugad thuige thuice thugainn thugaibh thuca
le, with, by leam leat leis leatha leinn leibh leotha
mu, about umam umad uime uimpe umainn umaibh umpa
ri, to rium riut ris rithe rinn/ruinn ribh/ruibh riutha
ro/roimh, before romhan romhad roimhe roimhpe romhainn romhaibh romhpa
tro/troimh, through tromham tromhad troimhe troimhpe tromhainn tromhaibh tromhpa
tha, over tharam tharad thairis (air) thairte tharainn tharaibh tharta
emphatic form -sa -sa -san -se -e -se -san

Continue reading

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GAELIC SELF-TAUGHT – LEASAN a h-AON DEUG – an Gnìomhair “A BHITH”; ATH-SGRÙDAIDH.

{LESSON 11 – the Verb “TO BE”; Review.}

Aithris-àichidh (Disclaimer) :–
Tha an leasan seo (agus leasanan sam bith a leanas) às an leabhar Gaelic Self-Taught le Alexander MacLaran (1923).
Tha na mìneachaidhean gràmair agus na obair-lesanan agus na cuidichean fuaimneachaidh às an leabhar gu buileach. Tha mi a’ sgrìobhadh na òrduighean a bha anns a’ Ghàidhlig.
This lesson (and any lessons that follow) are from the book Gaelic Self-Taught by Alexander MacLaran (1923).
The grammar explanations, the work-exercises and the pronunciation tips are entirely from the book. I am writing the instructions in Gaelic.


104. Faclan
co-ghnìomhairean {adverbs}
an-dràsta (an drasteh) – presently, (just) now
an làthair (an lla-aher) – present (someplace), the act of being present (short for anns an làthair)

abairtean roimhearaichte {prepositional phrases}
air a’ mhonadh (ar ah vonugh) – on the hill
anns an achadh (auns an achugh) – in the field
anns an fhang (auns an ank) – in the (animal) pen
sa mhadainn (sa vattynn) – in the morning (short for anns a’ mhadainn)

ainmearan {nouns}
bo, na ba (bpo, na bpa) – cow, the cows
na caoraich (nah ko-rych) – the sheep (plural)
na feidh (nah fay-yeh) – the deer (plural)

naisgearan (conjunctions)
noor


105. Leugh na seantansan seo anns a’ Ghàidhlig agus chuir Beurla orra.
1. Tha na caoraich anns an fhang.
2. An robh iad air a’ mhonadh a-raoir?
3. Cha robh ach tha iad anns an fhang an-dràsta.
4. Bha na ba caillte an-dè.
5. Bha na feidh anns a’ mhonadh am feasgar seo.
6. Nuair a thàinig e do’n bhàta bha e sgìth.
7. An uair a bha iad òg bhiodh iad anns a’ bhaile.
8. Tha na gillean an-seo an-diugh ach cha robh iad an-seo an-dè.
9. Bhiomaid a’ tighinn dachaigh a-raoir.
10. Bhiodh an uinneag briste.
11. Tha an doras duinte.
12. Bhiodh iad an-moch a-raoir.
13. Biomaid treun.
14. Tha na h-eich seo an-sin a-nis.
15. A bheil an cù aig an doras?
16. Tha e aig a’ bhàta.
17. Tha na ba anns an fhang ach bha iad air a’ mhonadh an-siud an-dè.
18. Biomaid anns a’ bhaile anns a’ mhadainn a-màireach.
19. Ma bhios e aig an taigh a-nochd bidh mise an-sin an-dràsta.

106.
Cuir Gàidhlig air na seantansan seo agus abair iad a-mach. Sgrìobh na seantansan anns an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agad.
1. When I was in the wood yesterday the boy was not present/there.
2. He will be here tonight or tomorrow.
3. The farmer was in the town when I was there in the morning.
4. Is the window not broken? No.
5. The dog is not in this field, it is on the hill.
6. There are deer on the hill.
7. Were the men not here last night? (or Weren’t the men here last night?)
8. No. They were in the boat.
9. Though you will not be ready I will be.
10. The deer were not in this field, they were on the hill.
11. These boys were not in the boat.
12. When we were there they were not present.
13. They will be there presently.
14. If the sheep are not in the pen they will be in the field.
15. The shepherd was on the hill.
16. Don’t let that stick be lost.
17. Let the window be opened in the morning.
18. When the shepherd was there the farmer was in the town. Continue reading

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Cleachdadh air a’ Mhodh Àithneach

Bidh an ath leasan anns an leabhar le MacLaren ath-sgrùdaidh fìor. Chan eil mi ag iarraidh a chur an leasan sin suas fhathast airson cha do chùm mi am modh àithneach air mheomhair agus ‘s miann leam tuilleadh cleachdadh. Seo an cleachdadh agamsa chun a seo.

1. Be he late or be he not, let us be ready.
2. Don’t let him be there this evening.
3. Let’s not be with him.
4. Be in town tomorrow. (thu)
5. Be in town tomorrow. (sibh)
6. Let that man be in town tonight and I will be going home.
7. Let me be with him.
8. Let’s not be there tomorrow.
9. Let the lad not be with him.
10. Don’t be late. (thu)
11. Don’t be late. (sibh)
12. Let’s not be late.
13. Whether the lad is fast or slow, he will be there.
14. Be ready. (thu)
15. Let’s be ready.
16. Don’t be lazy.
17. Don’t let the man be lazy.
18. Whether I be in the park or in the woods, I will be in town.
19. Let’s be lazy.
20. Let me be lazy. Continue reading

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GAELIC SELF-TAUGHT – LEASAN a DEICH – an Gnìomhair “A BHITH”; am MODH ÀITHNEACH

(Lesson 10 – the Verb “TO BE”; Imperative Mood)

Aithris-àichidh (Disclaimer) :–
Tha an leasan seo (agus leasanan sam bith a leanas) às an leabhar Gaelic Self-Taught le Alexander MacLaran (1923). Chaidh e air mo bheachd aon madainn nuair a bha mi anns an leabhar-lann agamsa. Thog mi e airson a bha mi a’ saoilsinn dè a bha.
Tha na mìneachaidhean gràmair agus na obair-lesanan agus na cuidichean fuaimneachaidh às an leabhar gu buileach. Tha mi a’ sgrìobhadh na òrduighean a bha anns a’ Ghàidhlig.
This lesson (and any lessons that follow) are from the book Gaelic Self-Taught by Alexander MacLaran (1923). I noticed it one morning when I was in my library. I picked it up wondering what it was.
The grammar explanations, the work-exercises and the pronunciation tips are entirely from the book. I am writing the instructions in Gaelic.


Fosgail an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agad dhan duilleag ùra agus sgrìobh roinn 95 oirre.

95. an Gnìomhar “A BHITH” ; am Modh Àithneach
singilte :–
1d bitheam (bee-um) = let me be
2ra bi (bee) = be thou
3mh bitheadh e (bee-ugh ay) = let him be
3mh bitheadh i (bee-ugh ee) = let her be
iolra :–
1d bitheamaid/ biomaid (bee-eh-madg) = let us be
2ra bithibh (bee-yv) = be you
3mh bitheadh iad (bee-ugh eeut) = let them be


Leugh an leasanan gràmair a leanas (roinnean 96 – 100).

96.
The formation of the persons in the imperative of this verb is according to the rules governing all Gaelic verbs. The 2nd person sing. of the imperative being termed the root of the verb. In the regular verbs all tenses can be formed from the root either by affixing a termination {NB – suffix?}, by prefixing a particle, or by aspiration (lesson XL).

97.
The 2nd person sing. and plural is the order of command; no pronoun is necessary unless for further emphasis, when the emphatic thusa can be used, bi thusa.

98.
The 1st and 3rd persons express a desire, whether purpose or request. The pronoun must be expressed in the 3rd person.

99.
An imperative negative can be made by placing the imperative particle na in front of any verb in the imperative mood. Thsi particle is reserved for, and can only be used to form, this imperative negative, or imperative prohibition, as : —

buail mistrike me
na buail mistrike me not/ do not strike me

It does not cause aspiration {lenition}. No other particles are used with the imperative.

1d na bitheam (na bee-um) = let me not be
2ra na bi (na bee) = be not thou
3mh na bitheadh e (na bee-ugh ay) = let him not be
3mh na bitheadh i (na bee-ugh ee) = let her not be
iolra :–
1d na bitheamaid/ biomaid (na bee-eh-madg) = let us not be
2ra na bithibh (na bee-yv) = be you not
3mh na bitheadh iad (na bee-ugh eeut) = let them not be

100.
The 3rd person imperative is very often used to translate the word “whether”.
Bitheadh e ‘na rìgh no ‘na fhlath… Whether he be a king or a prince / Let him be a king or a prince …
{N.B. – a famous example of this usage in English “be he alive or be he dead, I’ll grind his bones to make my bread” – bitheadh e beo no marbh, pronnidh mi a cnàmhan a dèanamh aran}


Sgrìobh na faclan a leanas. Cum iad air mheomhair.

101. Faclan
buadhairean
duinte (dtoon-tcheh) – closed, shut
fosgailte (foshkyltcheh) – open
lag-chridheach (lah khree-ukh) – faint-hearted
samhach (savukh) – quiet


Sgrìobh na seantansan a th’ anns an roinn 102 anns an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agat. Cuir Beurla orra agus leugh na seantansan a-mach anns a’ Ghàidhlig.

102.
1. Na bi lag-chridheach.
2. Biomaid anns a’ choille a-nochd.
3. Bitheadh an duine treun.
4. Bitheadh an doras duinte.
5. Na bitheadh an uinneag fosgailte.
6. Biomaid deas.
7. Na bitheadh iad anns a’ bhaile an-diugh.
8. Biomaid anns a’ bhaile a-nochd.
9. Na bitheadh e leisg.
10. Bitheadh an uinneag duinte.
11. Bitheadh e a’ dol dachaigh.
12. Na bitheadh e anmoch a-nis.
13. Na bitheadh an uinneag briste.
14. Na bitheadh an sgian caillte.
15. Bitheam a’ dol a-nis.
16. Na bitheadh na gillean anns a’ choille am feasgar seo.
17. Bitheadh iad treun.
18. Biomaid leis an-earar.


Cuir Gàidhlig air na seantansan a th’ anns an roinn 103. Leugh a-mach na seantansan anns a’ Ghàidhlig.

103.
1. Let us be in the wood tonight.
2. Let the man be brave.
3. Don’t let him be faint-hearted.
4. Be brave.
5. Let them be with him in the wood tomorrow.
6. Don’t let the boys be quiet.
7. You be quiet.
8. Let us be brave.
9. Don’t let him be late tonight.
10. Let us be in the town tonight.
11. Don’t let the window be broken.
12. Let the window be opened immediately.
13. Don’t let the door be shut.
14. Let us be ready this evening.
15. Let the door be shut now.
16. Don’t let the knife be lost.
17. Don’t be faint-hearted.
18. Let us be brave tonight.
19. Let me be with him tomorrow.
20. Don’t let us be cold.
21. Be quiet. Continue reading

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Ath-Sgrùdadh – Clàsan agus Naisgearan (Ach, Agus, Nuair, Ged, Ma, Mur, Na’n/Na’m)

{Review – Clauses and Conjunctions}

The conjunctions ach and agus are easy to use because they are followed by the statement forms of the verb. TAIC calls these “Group 1 Conjunctions”. Another simple or Group 1 conjunction is oir “because” which hasn’t been introduced in the lessons yet. As a reminder, the statement forms of the verb A BHITH (to be) are :–

Present – tha & chan eil
Past – bha & chan robh
Future – bidh & cha bhi
Conditional – bhiodh, bhithinn, bhiomaid & cha bhiodh, cha bhithinn, cha bhiomaid


The conjunctions ged, ma and nuair are all followed by a relative clause, which dictates the use of the relative form of the verb. The relative forms of the verb A BHITH are :–
Present – a tha & nach eil
Past – a bha & nach robh
Future – a bhios & nach bi
Conditional – a bhiodh, a bhithinn, a bhiomaid & nach biodh, nach bithinn, nach biomaid

The relative pronoun a can be translated into English as “who”, “which”, or “that”.

The interrogative pronoun “who” also required the relative form of the verb. You may have noticed, however, that the relative pronoun is not present in sentences using or ma

Cò tha a’ dol? ; Cò bha a’ dol? ; Cò bhios a’ dol? ; Cò bhiodh a’ dol?
Ma tha e a’ tighinn, chan eil mise.
Ma bha e a’ tighinn, cha robh mise.
Ma bhios e a’ tighinn, cha bhi mise.

When the word introducing the relative clause ends in a vowel, the relative pronoun a is “elided” by the preceding vowel; it disappears into the pronunciation of the preceding vowel sound. That’s because it’s basically a “schwa” or “eh” sound.

You might notice that the conjunction ma is not used in the negative or with the conditional. The meaning “if not” or “unless” is conveyed by the conjunction mur and the conditional “if” by the conjunction na’n / na’m.


The third group contains the conjunctions mur which takes the basic “interrogative” form of the verb. The interrogative forms of the verb A BHITH are :–
Present – a bheil & nach robh
Past – an robh & nach robh
Future – am bi & nach bi
Conditional – am biodh, am bithinn, am biomaid & nach biodh, nach bithinn, nach biomaid

Although I included the negative forms of the basic interrogative of the verb for the sake of the completeness mur is only used with the positive interrogatives because it is a negative conjunction.
Mur eil i a’ dol chan eil mise.
Mur an robh ise a’ dol chan robh mise.
Mur am biodh iad a’ dol chan bhithinnsa.
Mur a bi ise a’ dol cha bhi sibhse.


The last conjunction introduced in the lessons to date is Na’n or Na’m (which one is used depends on the first letter of the following verb; for the moment, just memorise when to use each). Na’n/ Na’m is used when the meaning of the sentence is conditional. While it can be used with the past tense of the verb A BHITH; all other verbs following na’n/ na’m MUST be in the conditional mood. Na’n takes the dependent form of the verb. To wit :–
Past – na’n robh
Conditional – na’m biodh/ bithinn/ biomaid

Na’n can used with the verb A BHITH because the past tense of the verb “to be” can be used to convey a conditional meaning in Gaelic, just as it does in English.
Na’n robh mi a’ dol cha bhiodh e leis-san. If I were going, it wouldn’t be with HIM!


Cuir Gàidhlig air na seantansan a leanas agus sgrìobh iad. Leugh na seantansan a-mach anns a’ Ghàidhlig.

1. When they are here tonight, I will be tired.
2. The dog is tired unless he is lame.
3. The man will be at the door when he is ready.
4. When he is slow, I am lazy.
5. They will be hear today even though I was there yesterday.
6. If the lad weren’t wet, he would be cold.
7. The dogs will not be cold even though they are wet.
8. This man will be going if HE (esan) is late.
9. That man would be here tonight if he is there this afternoon.
10. When the lad does not go with him, he isn’t very late.

Aontaich gach paidhir sheantansan a’ cleachdadh aon de na naisgearan – ach, agus, nuair a, ged a, ma, mur, na’n/na’m. {Combine each pair of sentences using one of the conjunctions.}
1. Bha na h-eich mall. Bha na h-eich crùbach.
2. Chan eil iad deas. Cha bhi iad a’ dol do’n bhaile.
3. Cha robh an uinneag briste. Cha bhiodh tu an-seo.
4. Cha bhi sinn an-sin an-diugh. Bidh mise ann a-màireach.
5. Cha bhiodh iad a’ dol dachaigh. Bhiodh na gillean a’ dol do’n bhaile.
6. Bhithinn anns a’ bhata. Bhiodh ise an-sin.
7. Bidh i deas. Cha bhi an gille deas.
8. Cha bhi e an-sin a-màireach. Bidh e ann an-earar.


Agus airson a lorg mi gach seantans le naisgear a bha anns an roinnean chun a seo …
{Also as I found each sentence with a conjunction that was in the sections up to now …}
57-3. Ged a tha e blàth tha e fliuch.
57-4. Tha an t-each crùbach ma tha e mall.
57-7. Mur eil an gille fuar tha e fliuch.
57-9. Tha an gille sgìth, ach chan eil e fuar.
58-7. Mur eil an duine fliuch tha e fuar.
58-3. Chan eil, tha e deas, ach chan eil mi (deas).
58-9. Tha an t-each luath, ach tha an cù mall.
58-14. Mur eil an duine an-sin tha an gille an-seo.
58-16. Mur eil an t-each sgìth tha e crùbach.
71-9. Bha na coin luath ach bha iad crùbach.
71-12. Nuair a bha iad an-seo an raoir bha mi sgìth.
71-17. Mur an robh iad an siud an-diugh, bha mise ann an-dè.
71-18. Na’n robh mi mall, bha mi leisg.
72-10. Mur an robh e an-sin an-diugh cha robh e an-sin a-raoir.
72-11. Bha na coin luath ged a bha iad crùbach.
72-14. Thuirt e na’n robh sinn a’ dol dachaigh bha e a’ dol do’n bhaile.
72-19. Ma bha mi leisg bha e mall.
81-2. Na’m biodh i deas bhithinn-sa.
81-4. Bha an sgian briste ach tha i caillte a-nis.
81-7. Nuair a bha iad òg bhiodh iad anns an sgoil.
81-9. Thuirt e nach biodh e an-sin a-màireach ach gu’m biodh e an-earar.
81-16. Mur bithinn fuar, bhithinn blàth.
81-18. Na’n robh mi an-sin cha bhiodh i briste.
82-1. Ged a bhiodh nan coin an-sin bhiodh iad sgìth.
82-3. Bhiomaid a’ dol ged a bhiodh na daoine anmoch.
82-4. Cha bhithinn sgìth ma bhiodh i an-sin.
82-5. Na’m bhithinn an-sin bhithinn blàth.
82-8. Cha bhiodh i briste na’m biodh tu an-sin.
82-13. Nuair a bha iad òg bhiodh iad anns an sgoil.
82-21. Thuirt e gu’m biodh e deas agus gu’m biodh e anns a’ bhàta.
93-1. Ged a bhios e anns a’ bhaile an-diugh, bidh e anns a’ bhàta feasgar.
93-5. Bidh e glè sgìth agus bidh e glè leisg.
93-12. Bidh an tuathanach sin an-sin a-màireach ach bidh an ciobar an-sin an-earar.
93-13. Ma bhios e an-sin a-màireach cha bhi mi an-seo.
93-20. Mur bi iad deas air ball bidh sinn anmoch.
94-3. Cha bhi e an-seo am feasgar seo, ach bidh e an-seo a-nochd.
94-9. Ma bhios an gille a’ dol leis bidh iad glè anmoch.
94-14. Cha bhi an duine a bhios deas leisg.
94-15. Bidh e glè sgìth nuair a bhios e dachaigh.
94-18. Ged a bhios iad anns a’ bhàta an-diugh, cha bhi mi an-sin.
94-19. Ma bhios e fliuch am feasgar seo cha bhi sinn a’ dol do’n bhaile. Continue reading

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GAELIC SELF-TAUGHT – LEASAN a SEACHD – an Gnìomhair “A BHITH”; am Modh TEAGMHACH (no Leantach) -Eisi

(Lesson – the Verb “TO BE”; Conditional (or Subjunctive) mood, independent)

Aithris-àichidh (Disclaimer) :–
Tha an leasan seo (agus leasanan sam bith a leanas) às an leabhar Gaelic Self-Taught le Alexander MacLaran (1923). Chaidh e air mo bheachd aon madainn nuair a bha mi anns an leabhar-lann agamsa. Thog mi e airson a bha mi a’ saoilsinn dè a bha.
Tha na mìneachaidhean gràmair agus na obair-lesanan agus na cuidichean fuaimneachaidh às an leabhar gu buileach. Tha mi a’ sgrìobhadh na òrduighean a bha anns a’ Ghàidhlig.
This lesson (and any lessons that follow) are from the book Gaelic Self-Taught by Alexander MacLaran (1923). I noticed it one morning when I was in my library. I picked it up wondernig what it was.
The grammar explanations, the work-exercises and the pronunciation tips are entirely from the book. I am writing the instructions in Gaelic.


Sgrìobh roinn 78.
78. An Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; Pàtran dhen Mhodh Teagmhaich
Neo-eisimealach : bhiodh (vee-ugh) = would be
Eisimealach : biodh (bee-ugh) = would be

am bithinn? (am bee-ynn) = Would I be?
am biomaid? (am bee-u-madg) = Would we be?
am biodh e? (am bee-ugh ay) = would he be?

cha bhithinn (cha vee-ynn) = I wouldn’t be
cha bhiomaid (cha vee-u-madg) = we wouldn’t be
cha bhiodh i (cha vee-ugh ee) = she wouldn’t be

nach bithinn? (nak bee-ynn) = wouldn’t I be?
nach biomaid? (nak bee-u-madg) = wouldn’t we be?
nach biodh sibh? (nak bee-ugh sheev) = wouldn’t you be?

clàsan teaghmach = conditional clauses
na’m biodh iad (nam bee-ugh eeut) = if they would be
mur mura biodh e (mur bee-ugh ay) =unless he would be/ if he would not be
ged a bhiodh tu (ket eh vee-ugh too) = though you would be
ged nach biodh i (ket nak bee-ugh ee) = though she would not be

clàsan eisimileach = dependent clauses
gu’m biodh sibh (kum bee-ugh sheev) = that you would be
nach biodh iad (nak bee-ugh eeut) = that they wouldn’t be


Leugh an leasan gràmair (roinn 79)
79. In these dependent forms of the conditional/subjunctive notice that the verb is not aspirated/ lenited after the particles am, nach, na’m, mur, gu’m, or ged nach, but that the initial of the verb is aspirated/ lenited after cha and ged a. All verbs whose initial is an aspirable are affected in this way in the subjunctive/ conditional.

*** {TUILLEADH OBAIR
(additional work)} ***
Leum loidhne. Sgrìobh am Pàtran dhen Mhodh Teagmhaich eisimileach airson am prìomh phearsa singilte (bithinn). (Skip a line. Write the Paradigm of the Conditional Mode in the first person singular.)
Leum loidhne. Sgrìobh am Pàtran dhen Mhodh Teagmhaich eisimileach airson am prìomh phearsa iolra (biomaid). (Skip a line. Write the Paradigm of the Conditional mode in the first person plural.)

Leum loidhne agus sgrìobh na faclan a leanas. Cum iad air mheomhair. (Skip a line and write the following words. Memorize them.)
80. Faclan
ainmearan boireanaich (feminine nouns)
sgoil (sgoll) = school

abairtean roimhearaichte prepositional phrases
anns a’ bhata (auns eh vateh) = in the boat
anns an fheasgar (auns an es-gur) = in the evening

co-ghnìomhairean (adverbs)
a-màireach (eh-maruk) = tomorrow


Leugh an seantasan a leanas a-mach anns a’ Ghàidhlig. Sgrìobh iad agus cuir Beurla orra. (Read the following sentences aloud in Gaelic. Write them and translate them into English.)
81.
1. Cha bhiomaid sgìth na’m biodh i a’ dol.
2. Na’m biodh i deas bhithinn-sa.
3. Cha bhiodh an sgiann briste.
4. Bha an sgian briste ach tha i caillte a-nis.
5. Bhiodh an duine aig an taigh anns an fheasgar.
6. Bhiodh iad anns a’ choille an-dè.
7. Nuair a bha iad òg bhiodh iad anns an sgoil.
8. Nach biodh e anns a’ bhaile a-màireach?
9. Thuirt e nach biodh e an sin a-màireach ach gu’m biodh ean earrar.
10. Am bhithinn blath anns a’ bhaile?
11. Bhiodh tu blath anns a’ bhaile.
12. Nach bithinn fuar anns a’ phàirc.
13. Cha bhiodh tu fuar anns a’ phàirc.
14. Nach bhiodh esan sgìth anns a’ choille?
15. Bhiodh e sgìth anns a’ choille.
16. Mur
a bithinn fuar, bhithinn blath.
17. Bhiodh an uinneag briste.
18. Na’n robh mi an sin cha bhiodh i briste.

Cur Gàidhlig air na seantasan a leanas. Sgrìobh na seantasan ùra agus leugh iad a-mach anns a’ Ghàidhlig.
82.
1. Though the dogs would be there they would be tired.
2. It would be cold there.
3. We would be going though the men would be late.
4. I would not be tired if she would be there.
5. If I wsa there I would be warm.
6. He said he would be late tomorrow.
7. The window would be broken.
8. I would not be broken if you would be there.
9. He said they would be goin to the town tomorrow.
10. Would they be going tothe town in the evening?
11. Would it be warm in the town?
12. That man would be at the house last night.
13. When they were young they would be in school.
14. Would the knife not be broken?
15. It woudl be lost in the wood.
16. They would be in the wood last night.
17. Would I not be cold in the park?
18. You would not be cold in the park.
19. Would it not be wet in the wood?
20. He would be wet in the wood.
21. He said he would be read and that he would be in the boat.
22. They said they would be at home tomorrow. Continue reading

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Leasan a h-Ochd : An Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; an Tràth Teachdail Neo-eisimileach

Lesson 8 : The Verb “TO BE”; Future Independent Tense

Fosgail an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agat gus an duilleag ùr. Sgrìobh seo a leanas (roinn 83). {Open your notebook to a new page. Write the following (section 83).}

83. An Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; an Tràth Teachdail Neo-eisimileach
bidh mi
(pee mee) = I shall/will be
bidh thu = thou shalt be
bidh e/i = he/she shall/will be

bidh sinn = we shall/will be
bidh sibh = you shall/will be
bidh iad = they shall/will be


Leugh leasan gràmair a bha anns an roinnean 84 agus 85.

84.
The English auxiliaries “shall” and “will” when used to express future action are not translated into Gaelic; the Gaelic verb itself assumes a form suited to that meaning.

85.
The Past Tense may be termed the Narrative {Eachdrachail} and the Future the Philosophical {Feallasanachail} – the former describes what once happened and the latter describes what always happens.


Sgrìobh na faclan a leanas (roinn 86) agus cùm air mheomhair. {Write the following the words (section 86) and memorize.}

86.
Ainmearan Fireanta {Masculine Nouns)
am bàta (um bpah-teh) = the boat
an ciobair (un keepur) = the shepherd
an tuathanach (un tooanuch) = the farmer
na h-eich seo/ sin (na hayk sho/ sheen) => these/ those horses

Co-ghnìomhairean
air ball (ar paul) = immediately
a-nochd (a-nochk) = tonight
an earrar = the day after tomorrow/ the day after next

Buadhairean
dorcha (dtorucha) = dark


87. Sgrìobh na seantansan a leanas agus leugh iad a-mach anns a’ Ghàidhlig. Cuir Beurla orra. {Write the following sentences and read them aloud in Gaelic. Translate them into English.}
1. Cha robh an tuathanach an-seo a-raoir.
2. Ach bidh e an-seo an-diugh.
3. Bidh na h-eich seo sgìth.
4. Bidh an ciobar an-sin.
5. Bidh am bàta an-seo air ball.
6. Bidh e dorcha air ball.
7. Cha robh na h-eich sin an-sin an-dè.
8. Bidh na gillean leisg.
9. Bidh mi a’ dol dachaigh a-nis.
10. Bidh e a’ dol do’n bhaile.
11. Bidh thu sgìth a-nis.
12. Bidh mi fuar an-diugh.
13. Bidh na h-eich seo òg.
14. Bidh e anns a’ bhàta feasgar.
15. Bidh sinn a’ dol do’n taigh a-màireach.
16. Bidh iad an-sin an-diugh.

88. Cuir Gàidhlig air na seantansan a leanas. Leugh na seantansan ùra a-mach.
1. The shepherd will be here immediately.
2. The farmer was here yesterday and he will be here today.
3. These horses will be tired.
4. They will be coming home late.
5. They will be there now.
6. We shall be coming to town in the evening.
7. You will be going to the town.
8. It will be dark immediately.
9. The boat was here last night and it will be coming today.
10. It will be here yet.
11. These horses will be going home now.
12. The boys will be lazy.
13. It will be cold to-day.
14. The farmer will be coming home immediately.
15. He is there now.
16. We will be going to the house tomorrow.
17. You will be going tonight. Continue reading

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Ath-Sgrùdadh dhen Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; an Tràth Cumhach – MA agus NAN/NAM agus MUR/MURA

Ath-Sgrùdadh dhen Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; an Tràth Cumhach – MA agus NAN agus MUR(A)
(Review of the Verb “TO BE”; Past Tense – If … Then statements)

Chan eil an ath-sgrùdadh seo anns an leabhar ach tha mi a’ smaoineachadh gu bheil tuilleadh cleachdadh a dhìth oirnn os cionn nach eil me a’ tuigsinn an diofar eatorra no chan eil fhios ‘am cò am fear a chleachdadh . (This revision isn’t in the book but I think that more practice is needed because I don’t understand the difference between them nor which one to use.)

Cuimhnich, tha “Ma” air a chleachdadh nuair a tha brìgh abairte fìrinnnach agus tha “Nan” air a chleachdadh nuair a tha brìgh abairte teagmhach no tuaireamach. Cleachd “Mur” no “Mura” nuair a tha an gnìomhair anns an chlàs leis a bha an naisgear.

(Remember, “Ma” is used when the meaning of the statement is factual and “Nan” is used when the meaning of the statement is conditional or conjectural. Use “Mur” or “Mura” when the verb in the clause with the conjunction.)

A bheil sin soilleir? Chan eil? A uill … cleachdadh, cleachdadh, cleachdadh.
(Is that clear? No? Oh well, … practice, practice, practice.)


Faigh a-mach gach seantans anns na leasanan ro-làimh anns a bha fear dhe na naisgearan cumhach – MA, NAN/NAM, MUR/MURA. {Lorg mi 13 seantansan; cia mheud a lorg thu?}.
(Discover each sentence in the preceeding lessons in which there is one of the conditional conjunctions – If, If … not, Unless. {I found trì-deug sentences; how many did you find? 57-7, 58-7, 58-16, 71-17, 71-18, 72-10, 72-19, 81-2, 81-16, 81-18, 82-4, 82-5, 82-8}).

Cleachdadh 1.
Atharraich an tràth gnìomhair ann an gach seantans. Mar seo :
Change the verb tense of each sentence. Like this :)
57-7. Mur eil an gille fuar tha e fliuch.
Mur an robh an gille fuar bha e fliuch.
Mur an robh an gille fuar, bhiodh e fliuch.
Mura biodh an gille fuar, bhiodh e fliuch.

Smaoinich mu dheidhinn gach seantans ùr a tha thu a’ dèanamh. Dèan sgrùdadh e. A bheil ciall ann? Ciamar a bhiodh thu a chleachdadh? (Think about each new sentence you make. Scrutinize/examine it. Does it make sense? How would you use it?)

57-7. Mur eil an gille fuar tha e fliuch. (If the lad isn’t cold, he is wet.)
Mur an robh an gille fuar bha e fliuch. – (If the lad wasn’t cold, he was wet.)
Mur an robh an gille fuar, bhiodh e fliuch. – (If the lad wasn’t cold, he would be wet.)
Mura biodh an gille fuar, bhiodh e fliuch. – (If the lad wouldn’t be cold, he would be wet.) {Tha mi ‘ smaoineachadh nach eil ciall anns an fhear seo. (I think that this one doesn’t make sense.)}


Cleachdadh 2.
Cleachdadh na seantansan ceudna, gluais an naisgear cumhaich gus a’ mheadhan dhen t-seantansan. Cleachd an naisgear freagarrach agus na gnìomharan freagarrach. Mar seo:
(Using the same sentences, move the conditional conjunction to the middle of the sentence. Use the appropriate conjunction and verbs. Like so: )
57-7. Mur eil an gille fuar tha e fliuch.
Chan eil an gille fuar ma tha e fliuch.
Cha robh an gille fuar ma bha e fliuch.
Cha robh an gille fuar na’n robh e fliuch.
Cha bhiodh an gille fuar na’n robh e fliuch.
Cha bhiodh an gille fuar na’m biodh e fliuch.

A-rithist – smaoinich mu dheidhinn gach seantans ùr a tha thu a’ dèanamh. Dèan sgrùdadh e. A bheil ciall ann? Ciamar a bhiodh thu a chleachdadh? (Again – think about each new sentence you make. Scrutinize/examine it. Does it make sense? How would you use it?)

57-7. Mur eil an gille fuar tha e fliuch. (If the lad isn’t cold, he is wet.)
Chan eil an gille fuar ma tha e fliuch. – The lad isn’t cold if he is wet.
Cha robh an gille fuar ma bha e fliuch. – The lad wasn’t cold if he was wet.
Cha robh an gille fuar na’n robh e fliuch. – The lad wasn’t cold if he were wet.
Cha bhiodh an gille fuar na’n robh e fliuch. – The lad wouldn’t be cold if he were wet.
Cha bhiodh an gille fuar na’m biodh e fliuch. – The lad wouldn’t be cold if he would be wet. {Abair neònach! Tha mi ‘ smaoineachadh gu bheil ciall anns an t-seantans seo. (How strange, I think that this sentence does make sense!)}

Continue reading

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Ath-Sgrùdadh dhen Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; an Tràth Caithte

(Review of the Verb “TO BE”; Past Tense)

Chan eil an ath-sgrùdadh seo anns an leabhar ach tha mi a’ smaoineachadh gu bheil tuilleadh cleachdadh a dhìth oirnn. (This revision isn’t in the book but I think that more practice is needed.)

An-dè os-chur mi tuilleadh leasain agus obair mu dheidhinn abairtean a chleachdas na faclan “MA” agus “NAN” leis an Tràth Caithte dhen gnìomhair “A BHITH”. (Yesterday I posted an additional lesson and practice concerning the use of “If … then” statements with the Past Tense of the verb “TO BE”.)

Tha an ath-sgrudadh dhen Tràith Caithte mu dheidhinn a’ chleachdaidh de na abairtean cumhach “Ged a bha mi” agus “Ged nach robh mi” agus de na abairtean dàimheach “… gu’n robh mi”, agus “… nach robh mi”. (This review of the past tense deals with the use of the conditional phrase “Although I was (not)” and of the relative phrase “… that I was (not)”.)

Ceart ma tha, leig sinn a thòiseachadh. (All right then, let’s begin.)


Aonaich na seantansan a leanas a’ cleachdadh an naisgear “Ged a bha”. (Combine the following sentences using the conjunction “Although … was/were”.)
Cleachd an iar-leasachan làidir far a tha iad freagarrach. (Use the emphatic suffix where appropriate.)

Mar seo –
The horse was going to town. We were not going to town.
Ged a bha an t-each a’ dol do’n bhaile cha robh sinne.

2. The lads were at the door last night. They were not going home.
3. He was not going to town. The men were there. (Nota Bene: This sentence, and other like it, will have the conditional phrase in the middle of the completed sentence.)
4. He was coming yesterday. He wasn’t here last night.
5. I wasn’t there last night. They were there.
6. The dogs were going home. They weren’t there.
7. A dog was at the door. The dogs were at home.
8. He was at the door today. he wasn’t there yesterday.
9. She wasn’t here he was wet. She was here today.
10. They were tired yesterday. They were ready yesterday.
11. He wasn’t going home yesterday. He was (at) home today.
12. I was going to town. I was tired.
13. The horse wasn’t lame. The horse was slow.
14. The dogs were here yesterday. They were not here today.
15. A dog was here last night. The dogs were at home last night.
16. The man wasn’t at the door. He was ready.


A-nis, aontaich na seantansan as leanas (tha a’ mhòr-chuid dhiubh co-ionann ris an fheadhainn os cionn) a’ cleachdadh an naisgear “Ged nach robh …”. (Now, combine the following sentences (most of them are the same as the ones above) using the conjunction “Although … was/were not …”.)

Mar seo –
The horse was going to town. We were not going to town.
Bha an t-each a’ dol do’n bhaile ged nach robh sinne.

2. The lads were at the door last night. They were not going home.
3. He was not going to town. The men were there.
4. He was coming yesterday. He wasn’t here last night.
5. I wasn’t there last night. They were there.
6. The dogs were going home. They weren’t there.
7. He was at the door today. he wasn’t there yesterday.
8. She wasn’t here he was wet. She was here today.
9. They were not tired yesterday. They were not ready yesterday.
10. He wasn’t going home yesterday. He was (at) home today.
11. I wasn’t going home. I was tired.
12. The horse wasn’t lame. The horse was slow.
13. The dogs were here yesterday. They were not here today.
14. The man wasn’t at the door. He was ready.


Atharraich na seantansan a leanas. (Change the following sentences.)
Cuir na clàs “Thuirt iad gu’n robh… ” no “Thuirt iad nach robh” an àite an gnìomhar mar freagarrach. {Sin e; ma tha an gnìomhar anns a’ Mhodh Thaisbeanach – Bha – cleachd “Thuirt iad gu’n robh…” agus ma tha an gnìomhar anns a’ Mhodh Dhiùltadh – Cha robh – cleachd “Thuirt iad nach robh …”}
(Replace the verb with the clause “They said that… ” or “They said that …not…” as appropriate. {That is; if the verb is indicative – Bha – use “They said that …” and if the verb is negative – Cha robh – use “They said that … not …”})

Mar seo –
Cha robh an t-each anns a’ phàirc.
Thuirt iad nach robh an t-each aig a’ phàirc.
agus
Bha na gillean anns a’ choille a-raoir.
Thuirt iad gu’n robh na gillean anns a’ choille a-raoir.

1. Bha an duine aig an doras.
2. Cha robh e aig an doras.
3. Bha na gillean anns a’ bhaile.
4. Bha na coin mall.
5. Cha robh iad anns a’ phairc.
6. Bha iad anns a’ choille.
7. Cha robh iad leisg.
8. Bha iad fliuch.
9. Bha na gillean caillte an-dè.
10. Cha robh e caillte anns a’ bhaile an-diugh.
11. Bha sibh mall an-dè.
12. Bha thu a’ tighinn a-nis.
13. Cha robh an t-each ann an-diugh.
14. Bha an là fliuch fuar.
15. Bha iad sgìth an-dè.
16. Cha robh an là fuar.
17. Bha e fuar anns a’ phairc an-diugh.


Faighneachd “Cò?” (Asking “Who?”)
Atharraich gach seantans a leanas; dèan iad ceistean a’ cleachdadh an riochdair ceisteach “Cò?”. (Change the following sentences; make them questions using the interrogative pronoun “Who?” .)

Mar seo –
Bha an duine aig an doras.
Cò bha aig an doras? {Tha fios agam, tha fios agam; tha seo liosda gu dearbh. (I know, I know, this is boring.)}

2. Bha na gillean anns a’ bhaile.
3. Bha na coin mall.
4. Bha iad anns a’ choille.
5. Bha iad leisg.
6. Bha iad fliuch.
7. Bha na gillean caillte an-dè.
8. Bha e caillte anns a’ bhaile an-diugh.
9. Bha sibh mall an-dè.
10. Bha thu a’ tighinn a-nis.
11. Bha an t-each an-sin an-diugh.
12. Bha iad sgìth an-dè.
13. Bha e fuar anns a’ phairc an-diugh. Continue reading

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Ath-Sgrùdadh dhen Gnìomhar “A BHITH”; an Tràth Làithaireach

(Review of the Verb “TO BE”; Present Tense)

Chan eil an ath-sgrùdadh seo anns an leabhar ach tha mi a’ smaoineachadh gu bheil tuilleadh cleachdadh a dhìth oirnn. (This revision isn’t in the book but I think that more practice is needed.)

A bheil thu deas? Ceart ma tha, leig sinn a thòisicheadh.
(Are you ready? Okay, let’s begin.)


Thoir duilleag phàipeir, fear nach eil anns an leabhar-sgrìobhaidh agat. (Get a piece of paper, one that’s not in your notebook.)

Chan eil mi cinnteach gur urrainn dhomh seo a mhìneachadh anns a’ Ghàidhlig ach feuchidh mi.
(I’m not sure I can explain this in Gaelic but I’ll try.)

‘S e roinn 46 (anns an leabhar) na seantansan a leanas.
(The following sentences are section 46 (in the book).

Aig ceann as àirde an duilleig sgrìobh na faclan If I am … = Ma tha mi … agus If I am not … = Mur eil mi … .
(At the top of the page write the words If I am … = Ma tha mi … and If I am not … = Mur eil mi ….)

Ceart ma tha, anns gach seantans còrr cur an abairt “Ma tha” an àite an gnìomhar agus cur an abairt air a thoirt aig ceann as ìsle an seantans – anns a’ Ghàidhlig, tha fios.
(All right, in every odd numbered sentence, replace the verb with “Ma tha” and add the phrase given at the end of the sentence – in Gaelic, of course.)

Agus anns gach seantans cothrom cur an abairt “Mur eil” an àite an gnìomhar agus cur an abairt air a thoirt aig ceann as ìsle an seantans – anns a’ Ghàidhlig, tha fios.
(For all even numbered sentences, replace the verb with “Mur eil” and add the phrase given at the end of the sentence – in Gaelic, of course.)

1. Tha an là fuar. (it is wet)
2. Tha an duine fliuch. (he is warm)
3. Tha e an sin a nis. (he isn’t there)
4. Tha an gille an seo. (he isn’t ready)
5. Tha mi sgìth. (I am ready)
6. Tha sinn deas. (they are not going to town)
7. Tha an là blàth. (we are going to town.)
8. Tha e fliuch a nis. (he is warm)
9. Tha iad an siud. (they are not cold)
10. Tha thu deas. (you are not going)
11. Tha an duine luath. (he isn’t lame)
12. Tha an gille an siud. (he is warm)
13. Tha mi fuar. (I am not yonder)
14. Tha an duine deas a nis. (he isn’t coming)
15. Tha an gille fliuch. (he is cold)
16. Tha sinn fuar. (we are warm)
17. Tha iad sgìth. (they are ready)


‘S e seo a’ cheart nì ach leis na abairtean “ged a bheil …” agus “ged nach eil …”. (This is the same thing but with the phrases “although I am …” and “although I am not …”.)

Aig ceann as àirde an duilleig sgrìobh na faclan Although I am not … = Ged nach eil mi … agus Athough I am … = Ged a bheil mi … .
(At the top of the page write the words Although I am not … = Ged nach eil mi … and Although I am … = Ged a bheil mi ….)

Anns gach seantans còrr cur an abairt “Ged nach eil” an àite an gnìomhar agus cur an abairt air a thoirt aig ceann as ìsle an seantans – anns a’ Ghàidhlig, tha fios.
(In every odd numbered sentence, place the word Although at the beginning of the sentence and negate the verb and then add the phrase given at the end of the sentence – in Gaelic, of course.)

Agus anns gach seantans cothrom cur an abairt “Ged a bheil” an àite an gnìomhar agus cur an abairt air a thoirt aig ceann as ìsle an seantans – anns a’ Ghàidhlig, tha fios.
(In every odd numbered sentence, place the word Although at the beginning of the sentence and add the phrase given at the end of the sentence – in Gaelic, of course.)

1. Tha an là fuar. (we aren’t going)
2. Tha an duine fliuch. (he is warm)
3. Tha e an sin a nis. (he is ready)
4. Tha an gille an seo. (he isn’t ready)
5. Tha mi sgìth. (I am not going)
6. Tha sinn deas. (we are not going)
7. Tha an là blàth. (they are going)
8. Tha e fliuch a nis. (he is warm)
9. Tha iad an siud. (they are ready)
10. Tha thu deas. (you aren’t coming)
11. Tha an duine luath. (he is ready)
12. Tha an gille an siud. (he is going)
13. Tha mi fuar. (I am not warm)
14. Tha an duine deas a nis. (he isn’t coming)
15. Tha an gille fliuch. (he is cold)
16. Tha sinn fuar. (we aren’t wet)
17. Tha iad sgìth. (they aren’t ready)


A-nis, thoir sùil air roinn 47. Cur Gàidhlig air na seantansan a tha anns an roinn 47 (rinn thu seo mu thràth).
(Now, look at section 47. Translate the sentences in section 47 into Gaelic (you’ve already done this).

Cur an abairt “Tha iad ag ràdh gu bheil” an àite an gnìomhar ann gach seantans còrr a tha anns an roinn 47. Cur an abairt “Tha iad ag ràdh nach eil” an àite an gnìomhar ann gach seantans cothrom a tha anns an roinn.
(Put the phrase “They say that” at the start of each odd sentence in section 47. Put the phrase “They say that … not” into every even sentence in the section.)

47.
1. The man is wet.
2 I am ready.
3. He is tired.
4. We are warm now.
5. They are wet.
6. You are tired.
7. She is here.
8. The boy is fast.
9. He is here now.
10. He is ready.
11. The day is wet.
12. The man is here.
13. The boy is tired.
14. They are there now.
15. They are cold.
16. He is ready now.
17. You are quick.
18. We are cold now.
19. The day is warm. Continue reading

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